Monks, Experts in Social Distancing –Find Strength in Isolation

–Need a habit to get through trying times? Try solitude.

Michael A. Vargas, State University of New York at New Paltz

Ever since the rainy season retreats of the Buddha 2,500 years ago, sages have celebrated the transformative power of being alone. In Christian monasteries, silent mindfulness became part of the everyday routine in the sixth century after the appearance of a book of monastic principles and guidelines called “The Rule of Saint Benedict.” In periods of trouble and isolation, my studies as a historian of medieval European religion draw me to the monks who’ve taught that solitude heals the mind and body and brings one closer to others.

On listening and acting

The author of “The Rule,” Benedict of Nursia, lived during the chaotic last years of ancient Rome, a period of plagues, intolerance, and, for some early Christians, self-isolation. Rather than retreat to the desert or live atop pillars, attempting to imitate Christ in acts of extreme aceticism, Benedict wanted a monastic life that combined “ora et labora” – work and prayer. It should impose, he thought, “nothing harsh or rigorous.”

Ivory carving of St. Gregory writing about the life of St. Benedict of Nurcia, 11th century.
Kunsthistorisches Museum via Wikimedia Commons

The monastic lifestyle may seem stark for modern times, but Benedict’s take on religious contemplation was moderate compared to the experiments of his era. His guidance for monks – which begins with a gentle, poetic invitation to listen with “the ear of the heart” – quickly became the monastic standard. Today, it remains the traditional frame by which historians, philosophers, and theologians regard contemplation as a monastic pursuit.

Some 1,400 years after Benedict’s Rules, Thomas Merton’s writings about his experience as an American Trappist monk influenced generations of Christians seeking spiritual healing. Born in France in 1915, Merton moved to the United States after his mother died when he was six. His father died soon after. His 1948 autobiography “The Seven Storey Mountain” describes the long period of soul searching that ended when he recognized that solitude had became the antidote for his suffering.

Being alone in silence was not about withdrawal from the world for Merton. Rather, solitude, as the foundation for heightened self-awareness, led to greater compassion for others. Merton expressed this realization, which sustained his lifelong activism in peace and social justice causes, in “No Man Is an Island,” published in 1955 and now a classic in Christian spirituality.

“We cannot find ourselves within ourselves, but only in others,” he wrote, “yet at the same time before we can go out to others we must first find ourselves.”

Compassion is a rough road

Not all monks succeed in finding inner peace through solitude, as Merton did.

A 13th-century drunk monk.
Wikimedia Commons

Take the Dominican Order of Preachers. While researching a book on the order’s experiences during a diseased and disoriented 14th century in Spain, I found many failures among the mendicant friar-brothers. Beyond some examples of illicit sex and public criminality, there are many instances of disruptive, lewd, and uncouth behavior. In 1357, just after the Black Death, for example, two of the order’s men, Francesç Peyroni and Bartomeu Capit, came to blows, hitting and kicking each other until, finally, clobbered with a stone to the head, Capit lost the ability to speak.

Peter the Hermit, a monk who led religious crusades in the 11th century.
The British Library

Meanwhile, some of the Dominicans I studied sought personal advantage by corrupting the order’s electoral system and government, by encouraging crusader violence and by leading repressive inquisitions.

The exploits of Spain’s bad-boy friars make for good reading, but they also raise a disheartening question: If seasoned professionals can fail at contemplative progress, how can regular folks even hope to achieve the benefits of solitude?

Keep it simple, keep it moving

For some solace, consider the “Cloud of Unknowing,” a practical manual for the work of reflective solitude. Written by an anonymous author of the late 14th century, it is widely regarded as one of the greatest of the medieval spiritual guides. The “Cloud of Unknowing” calls the practice of solitude exercise. An everyday comparison helps here: As with running or walking, some exercise is better than nothing at all, and more is even better. Encouraging oneself to be still, quiet and alone is beneficial, no matter how much effort goes into it.

The “Cloud” author says that a guide or coach might offer helpful advice, various “tricks, and devices and secret subtleties,” but none of that is necessary. What is most important is getting started and staying at it: “Do not hang back then, but labor in it until you experience the desire.”

Doing the exercise of solitude, rather than perfecting it, is what counts.

Contemplative practice in the Western world has historically been the pursuit of privileged men, like so many other realms. In the middle ages, clerics often scorned female spirituality. Today, of course, meditation by and for women is common.

Aspiring practitioners of solitude in today’s turbulent times may find a capable guide in Anthony De Mello, an Indian Jesuit priest, psychotherapist, storyteller, and spiritual teacher active into the 1980s – kind of a Catholic yogi.

Priest Anthony De Mello, teaching the art of solitude since 1978.

Like the author of the “Cloud of Unknowing,” De Mello focused on reflective silence as a way of detaching from the words, concepts, and emotions that can cause trouble. His 1978 bestseller, “Sadhana – A Way to God: Christian Exercises in Eastern Form,” offers practical advice with an encouraging “Well, that’s a good start” message.

Many websites offer audio and video recordings of De Mello’s conferences. They are super retro, but also, I think, just right for this moment of violence, illness, and protest.

When every day conspires against inner peace, moments of solitude are all the more worthwhile.The Conversation

Michael A. Vargas, Professor of History, State University of New York at New Paltz

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.


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  1. Is there a good loneliness? I do not believe. We are made to be with others, not to isolate ourselves: and loneliness almost always coincides with a very deep pain.
    Another thing, however, is knowing how to be with oneself, rediscovering the pleasure of taking the distance from the anxiety of everyday life, from the pressures of the present, from the dizziness of a time that we can no longer manage. Here there is the seed of a solitude that is not negative, but vital, for the simple reason that we are not alone, but we have our company. And maybe we can reflect, to deepen the knowledge of our heart and soul, just like the monks do with their lifestyle, which is certainly not sad. Being with ourselves it is easier to build in the imagination a priority of the ladder of life, finding solutions to problems that we perhaps discover do not exist.

  2. Truthful. Very good advice. I’m fine with my prayers and meditaion early morning but after that my mind fills up.
    I get very inspired by life.
    Maybe a little more time in the meditation chair to empty out.
    My oldest daughter and I love lisyening to the chants tapes too.
    Regardless, I loved the article and the youtube as well.
    Blessings Upon You, Loree xx